by Bohdan Vinogradskij
Lviv State Institute of Physical Culture, Ukraine

  Understructure study of various parameters of archers' movement operations has large significance, especially because of that, that their quantitative performances are known only partially. Whereas, archers' operations have complicated coordination structure and many of their characteristics are not accessible now for direct measurements during training. Therefore method of their simulation in sports pedagogic remains a unique are for deriving necessary subjective information about an investigated subject with consequent development of the recommendations on correction of revealed defects. Besides biomechanic models, used in training, characterize most successfully an internal essence of movements, which is accessible to sensitive of those being perception trained. Because of this it is possible to make one more note. Many techniques, developed for monitoring separate parameters of sport technique skill superbly approach as means of training just of those elements of sport technique, for study of which they have been developed [1,3]. Time is one of the main criteria for the correction of actions. One meets a certain hindrance when trying to determine this time, because the duration of this phase, as part of a complete shot, lies in a range of several tenths of a second. The aim of the work is to develop methodical means and methods which would create high efficiency for an archer's micro-movements during a bow string's release. Methods: Pedagogical experiment with utilization of specialized micro-movement time-study in the phase of a string's release is the method of investigation. The method is based on the basic principle that there is a close correlative relationship between sport results and the stability of time parameters of a bow string's release in archery (r = 0.79-0.94). We managed to exactly determine the real time of a string's release using a 'device for the measurement of movements' time parameters of archers' which we have developed (Ukrainian patent N93030186). Construction of the device suits general functional block- diagram of measuring system. Following blocks consist this system: object of measurement; perceiving of measuring quantity; transformation of measuring information; reflection of information; analysis and storage of measurement's results. This device consist of: contact group 1,2; contact 1 is placed on a bow's clicker 3, contact 2 - on bow's hilt 4 (under clicker). The second one- optoelectronic pare 5 which is situated on a special frame and this frame is fixed on a sigt's lath 6 and has a possibility to be moved longitudinally. The pare consists of light-emitting diode 7 which is in a modulator 8 and photodiode 9 which is in a detector's scheme 10 (fig.1).

Fig.1. Sctructural construction of "Device for the measurement of movements' time parameters of archers"
    But man has no innate sensation of a hundredth of a second delimitation. Such capability could be achieved using a special sensoric method, based upon general principles developed by Hellershtain [2], but with important innovations, namely (table 1):
1. Necessity is a numerical expression of time sensations and plays a considerable role in their development.
2. A perspective on the discovery of new and more precise signs of time's micro-intervals exists only in the presence of a close connection between subjective indices and objective criteria of time evaluation. Adding corrections to one's actions, as well as to judgments about them, is also possible only under such conditions.
3. Time's micro-interval sensation during a string's release must not be separated from the archer's activities. Sportsmen's reactions would be omni-percipiently analyzed through the following algorithm: clicker's sound signal - reaction - subjective trace - objective device's result - memory of the previous shot sensation - comparison of sensations and objective data.
Sctructural construction of method of time's parametres of string's release improvement.
Duration of stage
Sense and tasks of the stage
Main result of the stage
1. 1-2 training sessions Aim understending, interest's attaining, adaptation to device Being adapted to shooting with device
2. 2-3 training session Establishment of individual mean values of reaction and mean deviation Begining of connection's establishment between qualiti and time of their performance
3. 7-10 training session Archer's incite to self dimension of string's release time Mean value of foresight's mistakes are 0,005-0,008s.
4. 5-7 training session Archieve at most uniform time of string's release Effect of archer's actions control appears
    We should 'capture' those present, elementary time sensations, which remain after release completion, on the basis of the mentioned principles. Then we should transform them into a conscious category. That will cause an effect under which actions, which are time-sensitively regulated, will be more perfect. Results: We organized two groups of archers of medium levels of qualification (experimental and control) to check the efficiency of the proposed method. It should be supposed that we have positive effect when we survey a clear tendency to the stabilization of a string's release time parameters and an improvement in sport results as a result of the latter. Indices of Student's t-criteria for linked excerptions become a mathematical form of informative positive or negative displacements as well as changes in results of shooting before and after the pedagogical experiment. An index of bilateral Student's t-criteria equal to 2.262 was assumed to be of critical level for a=0.05 and u=34 (table 2).  
Table 2
Matrice of indices of Student's t-criterial for characteristics of changes in experimental group
Mean time of release
Mean square deviation of time of release
Variation's coefficient of time of release
Sport result
1. A sensory method's introduction secured a perceptible increase in the stability of release time parameters and an improvement in sport results.
2. By contrast, we do not see such changes in a control group of sportsmen.
3. Improvement of differential ability of specialized micro-intervals' time characteristics is a basis for the stabilization of a string's release duration.
  The further researches of process of perfecting of archers technical skill are recommended to be conducted by revealing most important of criterions of technical skill for fulfillment of basis technical elements of the shoot, determination quantitative ratios of these criterions, maintenance of variants of deriving necessary information, development program, methods and means of study and perfecting of weak links in archers' technique.
1.Анохин Н.K.    Tеория функциональных систем. -М.:Медицина, 1975.-420c.
2.Гелерштейн С.Г.    Чувство времени и скорость двигательной реакции.148p,,1958.
3.Торхаур Г..A.    Исследование условий эффективности срочной информации о временных параметрах в управлении однократным движением: Автореф. дис. канд. пед. наук (13.00.04).-М.,1970.-24c.

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