"TACTICS AND TACTICAL PREPARATION IN ARCHERY "
    Alexandr Kalinichenko (Ph.D, Lviv, Ukraine)
 
 
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PROTECTION OF EQUIPMENT FROM UNFAVORABLE WEATHER CONDITIONS
  Unfavorable conditions for shooting can be considered both high and low temperature, and also weather with precipitations, i.e. rain, snow. Overheat of a bow can affect negatively the quality of limbs of a bow, i.e. the limbs can begin to screw up, their throwing properties can change (as a rule bows become weaker and because of this MPH can be displaced downwards), the rest can unstuck completely or partially (if for its gluing on scotch was used). To lower the negative influence of overheat it is necessary to try during the breaks between shooting to keep the bow in places closed from the direct sunbeams. But not to use plastic tapes for covering in sunny weather, as far as their use can create a hotbed effect, at which a bow can turn out to be in the conditions of high temperature and humidity. At shooting in rainy weather it is important to make sure that a grip of a bow is not wet. With this purpose one can recommend to cover a bow with a synthetic tape or at least a protective grip of a bow with a small towel, and still better - to save the bows under covers from precipitations. In order to protect the limbs of the bow from unstuck in high humidity, one should make sure that the limbs have no scratches and are covered with the water-repellent varnish. With the same purpose it is not recommended to leave the bows on grass or on asphalt. Best of all is to use special supports for bows. After shooting in rainy weather, on returning home or in hotel it is necessary to wipe and dry out carefully the limbs and basic mechanical details of the bow, which can be damaged by high humidity. It should also be taken into account that because of high humidity the probability of unstuck of vanes and nocks of the arrows can increase. In order to avoid this it is necessary to undertake the proper prophylactic actions and examine the arrows during the breaks between shooting more carefully. At shooting in weather conditions with precipitations special attention should be paid to saving gloves and tabs as dry as possible. In addition, at the choice of tabs one should take into account that their properties did not change in the conditions of high humidity. Those who wear glasses for shooting should be ready to protect the glasses from misting over and from drops of water during rain. It is possible to make an example of this. When during the Olympic games in Moscow archer Boris Isachenko, taking large advantage in the results, literally on the last series lost the chance to become absolute Champion of the Olympic games, only because he was not ready to shooting in the strong rain. During shooting on the last distance, his glasses were poured over by water when heavy rain began unexpectedly and for this reason he lost all his point supply and had to be satisfied with the second place only. This is a classic example of the importance of the proper tactical preparation of an archer.

 
 
NOURISHMENT OF ARCHERS DURING COMPETITIONS

 
  The nourishment of an archer during the competitions depends on a number of conditions which are as follows: the national traditions, place and time of conducting of the competitions, the executed program and regulation of the competitions, age, typological peculiarities and habits of an archer. Even the religious belonging can act definite part in the choice of tactics of nourishment of an archer during the competitions. In every case best of all is to consult the doctor of team on this question. But general recommendations can be as follows. Before competitions one should not eat too substantially and drink much liquid. During the breaks between distances or between rounds an archer can have a drink of hot tea or restorative drink and eat a little. It is not recommended to overindulge coffee, chocolate, spicy dishes. Their excessive use can multiply frequency of pulse, and as a result worsen the stability. It is necessary to remember that these products affect excitingly the nervous system, worsen sleep, increase psychological loading. At participation in the international competitions also it is needed to avoid the use of the food products unknown to the archers, which can cause disorder in working of stomach. Often it is possible to look after the cases, when even change of chemical composition of water, on which a meal was prepared, causes the problems with digestion of stomach of separate sportsmen.

 
 
RANGING ARROWS MUST BE SHOOT SO THAT THE CONFIDENCE IN EXACTNESS OF THE PROPOSED SIGHT COULD BE FOUND

 
 

There is a general principle that it is necessary to shoot ranging or warming-up shots the same way as test shots. But in reality it is very difficult to bring to life this principle because in the psychological tension test shots cannot in be compared with warming-ups. Once I was observing aiming of a student of the known coach from Russia Alexander Boroday. At first I saw a shot clear in the technique of implementation and hit in the size 10. Then I saw the shot as clear as the first one in the technique of implementation and hit in the size 7 on the right of the center of the target, and later exactly the same in the technique of execution shot and hit in the size 7 already on the left of the center of the target. I expressed surprise in connection with what I had seen to Alexander Boroday and asked: Why did your student get two arrows so far from the center of the target at such clear execution of shots? His answer was as follows: My student executed a tactical task put before her well. She hit exactly those parts of the target, an which she aimed and which I advised her to hit. Now shes hit into 10, 7, 7 and has got 24 points. For the ranging arrows this is neither too much nor little. But she proposed an exact sight, as far as she hit exactly those districts of target she wanted to hit. Imagine what would happen, if she being now a young and inexperienced sportswoman would get 30 points out of 30 possible ones in the ranging arrows? This would enlarge her psychological tension and laid large responsibility at shooting test arrows. And this way she saved her psychological balance. After these words I understood that there was indeed a great coach in front of me, and in front of him one can take off his hat as a sign of respect, and that world records and the rank of World Champions of his students this is not a chance, but a result of great skills and accomplished domain both of technologies of preparation of technical actions of an archer, and their tactical skills.

 
 
INFLUENCE ON COMPETITORS BY CHOOSING THE TACTICS OF CONDUCTING RANGING ARROWS

 
 

  Many archers know that their main competitors watch attentively their shooting in the ranging day or during the warming-up shootings. It is possible to assume that some archers purposefully try already to affect their competitors by the quality of shooting in time ranging and warming-up series. And the two completely opposite tactical principles can be used here. The first one is to show ones excellent readiness and not to leave competitors any chances for victory. The second reception vice versa has on its aim to mask his/her indeed good readiness and to act as if today he/she is not in the best condition, while during the real competitions to come already forward in the complete force astonishing the competitors. Both variants have a right for existence. In fact we do not judge a football player when he shows an intention to break the ball through in one direction, and really shoots in quite another? In fact this only decorates and enriches sport.

 
 
ARCHER MUST BE ABLE TO DETERMINE FORCE AND DIRECTION OF WIND, TO MAKE SHOOTING WITH THE PROPER CARRYING OUT POINTS OF AIMING

 
  Ability to shoot in windy weather is, perhaps, the tactical task, which is as a rule solved by archers at shooting outdoors. In the tactical preparation of an archer this ability takes the special seat because of its great importance. Simple path of mastering the skill of shooting in windy weather is the real shooting outdoors with wind of different force and different directions. But here is one peculiarity, which is always recommended to be taken into account. Shooting in windy weather has very negative affect on the motive skill of an archer. Therefore over-indulgence in shooting in windy weather is often fraught by necessity to restore motive skill of an archer to the necessary standard for a long time.
The easiest way to define force and direction of wind is to observe objects, which deviate under its influence. These can be small flags above range targets, flags of sceneries, branches and leaves of bushes and trees round the field for competitions, high grass, etc. In table 1 the defining of speed of wind with the help of external signs is shown. When defining force and direction of wind, an archer should take into account that first of all he/she must be interested in the wind, which in greater degree affects flight of exactly his/her arrows. One should also take into account that because of possible turbulences at different levels of earth wind can have different direction and strength. It is also important to know that current of air, adjoining with the surface of the ground, is a little detained. Therefore with the height of wind its speed is multiplied. In Fig. 7 the exemplary graph of change of speed of wind depending on the height of trajectory of arrows on different distances of shooting is shown. As an example we can look at the case of shooting on 90 meters distance. At shooting on this distance arrows fly approximately on height 6-7 meters above the ground, while special indicator small flags above the targets are approximately on the height of 2 meters from the ground. Thus, they do not always exactly indicate direction and strength of wind, which affects flight of arrows and which is of interest for an archer. Whereas wavering of flags of the scenery along the field for shooting or of an accidental ribbon on the proper height can be more useful for the archer, than small flags above his/her target. An archer can also get information about the tendencies of the winds dominant during competitions at the observation of flight of arrows let out by other archers that shoot with him/her or at the neighboring range targets. We can recommend to use the binoculars and to observe the flight of arrows let out by other participants of the competitions. It is also important to take into account that presence of large houses, high trees, fences, tribunes or other similar obstacles near the field for shooting can create the difficult turbulences of wind and present additional problems for archers tactically.
 
 

TABLE 1
THE TABLE OF DEFINITION OF FORCE OF A WIND TO EXTERNAL ATTRIBUTES
Force in numbers
Name of a wind
Speed in m/s
External attributes
0
Calm
0
The smoke rises upwards not deviating; leafs and the flags are motionless
1
Silent
1
Is felt easy whiff; on a smoke it is possible to define (determine) a direction of a wind; leaves and the flags are motionless
2
Easy
2,5
Flags and leafs on trees slightly change
3
Weak
4,5
The flags are rinsed; the small trees change
4
Moderate
6
The small flags are involved; the wind lifts a dust and scrap of a paper
5
Fresh
8,5
The large flags are extended; the large naked branches of trees change
6
Hard
11
Whistles between houses and motionless subjects
7
Strong
14
The trunks of the large trees without leafs change; the wires hoot
8
Very strong
17
Breaks branches and twigs; appreciably be at a loss (complicate) movement
9
Storm
20
Breaks large naked twigs of trees; moves easy subjects; damages (injures) roofs
 
 
      At shooting in thick wind an archer must be able to choose opportune moments for shots. This requires from him/her an ability to shoot not rhythmically, both to do shots in the rapid rate in pauses between gusts, or take long breaks, to wait over unfavorable conditions. Tactically an archer must not fear to get in the state of time trouble, when there are less than 30 seconds for realization of 2 or 3 shots (to overcome dread of yellow light). This style of shooting needs to be taught at special trainings. One can also notice that character and style of shooting in the windy weather slightly differs from shooting without wind. Shooting becomes bolder, more confident. Stand for shooting is harder. In windy weather preparatory actions and realization of a shot is carried out in shorter periods of time, and tactical decisions during aiming and treatment of a shot are made operatively and exactly. Very often archers have to choose what to do. To shot in the high and steady direction of wind, or try to wait till it goes through. There is no single answer here. Making the decision to the great extent depends on the character of wind, tactical experience of an archer, level of his/her technical and physical preparation. But it is possible to consider decision to shoot in wind which is stable in force and direction to be a more preferable variant.
 
For the study of influencing of wind on the degree of rejection of arrows from the center of target, it is possible to recommend the special shooting on training in range targets which are located against each other. For example, an archer does a series of shots in range target which is located on north of his, and then goes back into other side, and without changing a point of aiming, does a series of shots in range target which is located on south of him. By the way, such exactly by method at shooting in the conditions of absence of wind an archer can do the supervision after the change MPH at different directions of illumination (the sun is from one side of archer, and then from other side).
 


Fig. 7
 
 
     
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