"TACTICS AND TACTICAL PREPARATION IN ARCHERY "
    Alexandr Kalinichenko (Ph.D, Lviv, Ukraine)
 
 
Continuation
 
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EXAMPLES OF TACTICAL ACTIONS IN ARCHERY

   It is practically impossible to make examples of all possible tactical actions in archery, as it is impossible to foresee all nuances and peculiarities of variants which can happen during the course of archery competitions. But it is possible to make an attempt to outline definite groups of tactical actions, which are used by archers most frequently during their participation in competitions:

· DETERMINATION OF MIDDLE POINT OF HITTING OF ARROWS (MPH)::
·Determination of middle point of hitting (MPH) of arrows is probably the first tactical task, which an archer has to deal with and which he/she solves later during his/her further training in archery. The appearance of modern computers and microprocessors considerably facilitated this task. The special software for the personal computers and the special microprocessors has already appeared (type Target Plot, www.targetplot.com.au ) which makes the solving of these tasks simple and exact enough. At the same time more simple, tested, reliable and effective means of the determination of MPH have not lost their vitality.
For example, the decision of MPH three arrows (Fig. 1 and.) is carried out as follows: places of hitting of two arrows, which are the closest to each other are connected by a line, which is divided into two parts. The place of its division is designate by a hyphen. From this hyphen another line is drawn to the place of hitting of the third arrow and is divided by hyphens into three equal parts. Hyphen, which is closer to the first drawn line will be MPH.
The determination of MPH of four arrows (in the cases, if they are located approximately on the equal distances one from another) (Fig. 1 b.) is carried out as follows: places of hitting of arrows that are situated opposite one another are connect by the straight lines; a place of crossing of two lines will be MPH.
The determination of MPH of four scattered arrows is determined, like in the case of three arrows with addition of the third line, which in its turn is divided into four equal parts. Hyphen, which is closer to the second line, will be MPH (Fig.1 in.).
The same way MPH of five, six or more arrows is determined (Fig.1).

 
 

 
 
  Fig.1
" DETERMINATION OF MPH OF ARROWS"
 

Even the most modern technologies cannot guarantee complete identity of arrows, which are used and as a result this causes dispersion of hits. There is a long list of reasons why separate arrows can have differences one from another and on this account can have their own tendencies of hits in target. For example: curvatures of arrows, difference in the length of arrows, difference in the weight of arrows, difference in the centre of gravity, difference in inflexibility, difference in the area of vanes, quality of gluing on vanes (in particular case observance of identical of corners of gluing), in exactness of coincidence of longitudinal axis of nocks with the axis of an arrow, divergences in sizes and characteristics of nocks, etc. With the purpose of exposure of tendencies of the hits of arrows archers practice marking of arrows with numbers with the subsequent mark of hit of arrows on the little targets. It is necessary to mark that this is a very important part of actions of an archer, relating to the tactics of archery. Habit of exact conduct and analysis of similar little targets in the diaries of archers should be welcome and encouraged, practically from the first experiments of engagement in archery. It is possible to consider that the habit to conduct the personal diary of archer neatly is one of the first steps of an archer to the mastering of the practical skills of tactics. There are tens of variants, charts and forms of conducting this kind of diaries. The detailed description of methods of their conduct can become a theme for writing a separate article.
In the tactical preparation of archers sketching and analysis of maps of hits of arrows is classic. Charts for the conduct of similar maps depend on the following number of conditions: degree of qualification of an archer; distance or exercise, which is executed; tasks, which are set at filling out the cards, etc. Examples of a few variants of pictures of targets in similar maps are shown in (Fig. 2.). Pictures of the targets in Fig.2a are suggested to use mainly for marking the shooting on four classic distances, Fig. 2b for marking the tendencies of hit of every separate arrow, and targets in Fig. 2c are suggested to use for marking every shot. In (Fig.3a) an example of marking of points the hit on distance 70 meters is given, and in (Fig.3 b) an example of the determination of MPH by PC is given.
Fig. 2
 
Fig. 3 "Results hits of arrows in a target (scale 1:120); Distance-70 meters; 36 arrows.
Score - 302 points, Middle quantity of glasses, which is on every shot - 8, 42
"

· DETERMINATION OF MPH AND DISPERSION OF EVERY SEPARATE ARROW

· More rarely applied, but not less important for archers of extra class we can consider the determination of radii of dispersion of every separate arrow that is used (Fig. 4). As we can see from the given example with arrows ¹3 and ¹5 distances of MPH from the center of target are approximately identical. At the same time radius of dispersion of the arrow ¹ 3 considerably less than at arrow ¹5. Thus, in case of beginning of question about priority of arrows for the use during competitions preference it is better to give to the arrow ¹3, because after the choice of the proper
point of aiming, it will be possible to expect that this arrow will show the best effectiveness.
Fig. 4

· ABILITY IS TO SHOOT WELL BOTH ON THE RIGHT, AND ON THE LEFT FROM THE CENTER OF THE TARGET


Fig. 5

  Sometimes it is possible to observe the situations, when young archers on training have a habit to occupy a definite position on the line of shooting, only on the right or on the left of center of a target (Fig.5).
   Later, at real competitions this habit can create definite discomfort in actions of archers, because in order to observe the rules of competitions, they are forced to shoot from the «uncomfortable for them positions». To avoid such inconveniences at competitions, archers must train themselves on training to shoot identically effectively from different positions on the line of shooting: on the left of center of a target, on the center of a target or on the right of center of a target.
 
· MAKING OF THE HABIT TO CHECK UP ABSENCE OF DAMAGES OF USED ARROWS AFTER EXTRACTION OF THEM FROM THE SHIELD
  When arrows hit the target, accidentally hit one another, when the vanes of arrows contact with rest and grip of a bow in the moment of shot damages of nocks, tearing off or tears of vanes, curvatures or damages of arrows, unscrewing of points at arrows of ACE type, etc. If this kind of damages or failings are not found out and removed in time, it is possible to lose points at competitions. To eliminate this it is necessary to make a habit to check up absence of damages of arrows after extracting them from a target.

· CHOICE OF OPTIMUM CLOTHES AND SHOES, DEPENDING ON WEATHER CONDITIONS IN TIME OF COMPETITIONS ·
  Clothes and shoes used by an archer should correspond to the operating rules of archery, to the weather conditions, in which the competitions are conducted and to be comfortable for shooting. Clothes of an archer should not cause an overheat of organism in hot weather and overcooling in cold weather. At shooting in especially hot weather archers necessarily should use head attires in light colors to avoid such unpleasant phenomenon as «sunstroke». One should also beware of possible sunburns of skin, which can put a sportsman out of the sports shape for a long period of time. Shoes must be without heels, give feeling of comfort and good steadiness. In case of shooting in weather conditions with precipitation one should be ready to put on the proper water-repellent clothes and shoes. Especially one should watch so that the clothes used were not a reason of hooks of bowstring. For the prophylactic of catching of bow-string and for the removal of folds of clothes in places close to passing of bow-string it is possible to use the hair-pins, pins, clothes-pins, elastic rings, chestguards, etc. It is also necessary to make sure that every part of clothes or equipment of an archer has been tested by him/her at training or at competitions not of great importance.

· CHOICE OF OPTIMUM CONSTRUCTION OF A QUIVER AS SPORTS SKILLS OF AN ARCHER GROW
For the successful solving of the tactical tasks arising as sports skills of an archer grow the requirements should rise to the construction of a quiver used by him/her as well. In a good quiver for competitions the special delimiters must be foreseen for the used arrows so that an archer could comfortably group and lay out the arrows according to their specific features with the purpose of economy of precious time on the line of shooting at competitions (Fig.6).


Such delimiters (divider tubes) help to lay out the arrows comfortably according to their priority or specific features. We repeat once again - arrows must be numbered. Usually, similar quivers allow also having minimum reserve of spare arrows in case of unforeseen circumstances. It is desirable to have place in construction of a quiver for «within reach» things, such as spare string; spare rest; set of screwdrivers for the equipment, which is used by an archer; special bow square; glue; talc; notebook; fountain-pen; marker; small towel to wipe hands and to protect the grip of a bow; arrow puller for drawing out arrows in wet weather, which an archer may need in the course of participation in competitions.   


Fig. 6
     
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This page last updated Saturday, January 8, 2005